# Scientists

## Albert Einstein:

### (March 14, 1879, Ulm- April 18, 1955, Princetown)

Was a German-Swiss-American theoretical physicist, who is regarded as the most important scientist of the 20th century. Submitted by the theory of relativity and contributed significantly to the development of quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and cosmology. In 1921 he made the explanation for the photoelectric effect and the merits of Theoretical Physics Nobel Prize in physics.

## Stephen William Hawking

### (January 8, 1942, Oxford, England)

Is one of the world's leading theoretical physicists. Hawking is from 1979 Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University and a researcher at the Department of Gonville and Caius. The fact that he is on this position despite the almost total incapacity due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, made him a global star. In January 8, 2009 he became a professor emeritus since reached retirement age of 67 years.The number of his scientific publications is close to 200 and are characterized by the fact that despite the exemplary scientific expert works and they are partly non-fiction, that is understandable and not entirely consecrated reader, and still not lose their expertise.

## Edwin Hubble:

### (November 20, 1889, Marshfield - September 28, 1953, California)

was an American astronomer who studied galaxies. He proved that galaxies are independent stellar systems like the Milky Way. Among his greatest discoveries are the relationships between the rate of expansion of galaxies and their distance (Hubble's law).They are named after the Hubble telescope, the Hubble constant, the Hubble relationship and others.

## Sir Isaac Newton:

### (January 4, 1643, Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth - March 31, 1727, Kensington)

Was an English physicist, mathematician and philosopher. It is one of the greatest figures in the history of human knowledge, and since it actually counts physics as modern science. Newton followed the results of its predecessors - Galileo, Kepler, Descartes and others. Precisely formulated the basic laws of mechanical motion, and gave them the form of mathematical equations and created the differential and integral calculus by which we solve these equations. Up to the time of Newton became possible to calculate the motions of the planets, to predict the exact dates eclipses of the Sun and Moon, planets periodic return time (especially the famous Halley's comet), and even calculate the location and movement of previously unknown elements. Newton's law of gravity allow to determine the mass of celestial bodies and the forces between them, weigh the globe. Newton showed that the difference between the laws of terrestrial and celestial motion, as Aristotle believed, but the force that causes the planets move around the sun is the same as the force that causes the fall down the stairs.

## Erwin Schrödinger:

### (August 12, 1887, Vienna - January 4, 1961, Vienna)

Was an Austrian physicist, co-founder of quantum mechanics. He became famous in particular formulation of relativistic wave equation for description of material particles, which in his honor called the Schrödinger equation. He holds a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1933 (along with Paul Dirac).

## Werner von Heisenberg:

### (December 5, 1901, Würzburg, Germany - February 1, 1976, Munich)

was a German theoretical physicist, co-founder of quantum mechnics.He contributed to the development of quantum electrodynamics, quantum field theory, the theory of the nucleus, cosmic ray physics, the theory of elementary particles. Formulated the relationship of uncertainty, which limits the application of classical concepts to microworld.In 1932 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics.

## Wernher von Braun:

### (March 23, 1912, Wirsitz - June 16, 1977, Alexandria, Virginia)

Was a German - American rocket scientist. During WW2 German military constructed rockets V1, V2, which were the first ballistic missiles in the world. At the end of the war he gave it to the US Army, and the whole team went to the US, where initially led military construction, and later the space launch, and his work culminated in the development of type Saturn rockets for the Apollo lunar program.

## Max Planck

### (April 23, 1858 in Kiel, Germany - October 4, 1947 Göttingen)

Was a German theoretical physicist, professor at the University of Berlin. Nobel laureate. By studying a black body concluded that energy is emitted and absorbed in quantity and became the founder of quantum mechanics. He also dealt with thermodynamics, mechanics, optics and philosophical questions of physics.

## Edward Witten:

### (August 26, 1951, Baltimore)

Is an American theoretical physicist with a focus on mathematical physics. He is a professor at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, a leading researcher in the field of string theory and the holder of the highest awards in the field of mathematics, Fields Medal. Witten made a significant contribution to knowledge in theoretical physics and work, which brought a large number of highly mathematical results. It is primarily engaged in the field of quantum field theory and string theory as well as in adjacent areas of topology and geometry. Among his many work include, for example, a simplified proof of theorems of positive energy, including issues of spinors in general relativity, its work on Supersymmetry and Morse theory, his introduction to topological quantum field theory and related work on mirror symmetry as well as his work on the M-theory.

## Brian Greene:

### (February 9, 1963, New York)

Is an American physicist and string theorist and popularizer of science. From 1996 he was a professor at Columbia University.

## Niels Henrik David Bohr

### (October 7, 1885, Copenhagen - November 18, 1962, Copenhagen)

In 1913,he developed based on ideas by E. Rutherford and Planck quantum hypothesis M. and A. Einstein a model of an atom called. Bohr model (the first quantum model of the atom). The 1918 model has been extended in the correspondence principle (now commonly referred to as the older quantum theory), which he managed to push his theory. In 1921, theoretically explain the periodic table on the basis of his model of the atom A. Sommerfeld extended. In 1935 he began to deal with nuclear physics. Introduced as the concept of compound nucleus and devised a model (sand) bag and droplet model of the atomic nucleus. In 1939, together with other physicists he discovered the practice of significant fission of uranium. In 1922 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for research into atomic structure.

## Michael Faraday

### (22 September 1791 - 25 August 1867)

Was an English physicist and chemist. He was especially working with electromagnetism, discovered electromagnetic induction, self-induction, the laws of electrolysis, Diamagnetism, benzene. Introduced the concept of electric, magnetic field and electric field lines. His ideas mathematically formulated by James Clerk Maxwell. Was a great experimenter. Revealed a close correlation between electricity and magnetism and constructed the first electrical generator. Faraday then gave a theoretical basis for all motors and dynamos. As a passionate speaker who likes to speak in public, introduced the Christmas tradition of scientific lectures, which continues to this day in England.

## George Gamow

### (March 4, 1904, Odessa, Ukraine - August 20, 1968, Boulder)

Was an American physicist of Ukrainian descent, who predicted the existence of background radiation. In 1926 he graduated from the Leningrad University in the years 1931 to 1933 he worked at the Leningrad Institute of Physics. In 1934, G. Gamow went to the United States, where in 1956 he lectured at George Washington University, then at the University of Colorado. He worked on quantum mechanics, atomic and nuclear physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In 1928, explained the mechanism of alpha decay. He was the first come up with the theory of the universe, which the defendant Fred Hoyle derisively described as "big bang" (eng. Big bang). This theory was confirmed in 1965 by American astronomers.

## Fred Hoyle

### (June 24, 1915, Gilstead - August 20, 2001, Bournemouth)

Was a British astronomer and writer. At first Hoyle is devoted to the anthropic principle. In order to clarify the processes of stellar nucleosynthesis he noticed that one nuclear reaction, 3α process that generates carbon is required to be the core of atoms some very specific energy. A huge number of atoms in the universe, which allowed us to exist, indicating that this nuclear reaction must exist. Based on this assumption did predict the energy levels in the nucleus of atoms, which was later confirmed experimentally.